Regesta 21a
1247-1248

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Institute of Historical Research

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W. H. Bliss (editor)

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1893

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249-259

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'Regesta 21a: 1247-1248', Calendar of Papal Registers Relating to Great Britain and Ireland, Volume 1: 1198-1304 (1893), pp. 249-259. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=96015 Date accessed: 02 September 2014.


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Regesta, Vol. XXIa. (fn. 1)

6 Innocent IV.

15 Kal. Aug.
Lyons.
(f. 2.)
Mandate to the archdeacon of Worcester to inhibit the abbot and convent of Glastonbury from bringing the rights of the bishop of Bath and Wells before a secular court, the cause between Bath and Glastonbury having been brought to an end by the pope.
[July.]
Lyons.
(f. 2d.)
Indult to John de Riston, rector of Ywardeby, in the diocese of Lincoln, to hold an additional benefice with cure of souls.
Kal. Sept.
Lyons.
(f. 5d.)
Indult to the abbot and convent of Malmesbury to hold to their uses, on the death of the rector, the church of St. Peter founded in the manor of Brankewurd, of their patronage.
Kal. Nov.
Lyons.
(f. 6.)
Mandate to the bishop of Lincoln to grant a licence to the prior and brethren of the Holy Cross in his diocese to adopt the rule of St. Augustine, with certain Dominican ordinances.
13 Kal. Sept.
Lyons.
(f. 7.)
Mandate to the archbishop of Canterbury to make provision of some benefice in England to Albert, curate (plebano) of Campilio, papal chaplain, kinsman of the Queen of England, notwithstanding papal provision for others or any statute as to numbers or any papal indult of exemption granted to prelates and chapters.
6 Kal. Oct.
Lyons.
(f. 8.)
Faculty to the abbot of Evesham to give solemn benediction in the absence of archbishop, bishop, or legate, in addition to former licence to wear mitre, ring, sandals, and other pontifical insignia.
Ides Sept.
Lyons.
(f. 8.)
Faculty to the abbot and convent of the same to wear suitable caps in choir, in consideration of the cold site of their monastery.
7 Kal. Nov.
Lyons.
(f. 8d.)
To the abbot and convent of St. Mary's, York. Relaxation of a hundred days of enjoined penance to those penitents who visit their church on the feasts of the Assumption and Nativity of the Blessed Virgin, and during their octaves.
5 Kal. Aug.
Lyons.
(f. 9.)
Mandate to the abbot and convent of Glastonbury to make provision of a benefice in their gift, value 100 marks, to Boniface, archdeacon of Reggio, the pope's nephew and chaplain, notwithstanding any papal indult or exemption. Failing this, the pope orders John Sarraceni, dean of Wells, to carry out the mandate.
Kal. Oct.
Lyons.
(f. 10d.)
Indult, at the request of the count of Burgundy, to Roger de Essex, of the diocese of Laon, to hold an additional benefice with cure of souls, in the diocese of Laon, or within one day's journey.
2 Id. Nov.
Lyons.
(f. 11.)
Mandate to the archbishop of Tuam to receive the resignation of the bishop of Achonry if it appears that his age has rendered him infirm, and assign to him a portion of the episcopal revenues, ordering the chapter to proceed to make a canonical election of a successor. [Theiner, 51.]
7 Kal. Dec.
Lyons.
(f. 12d.)
Grant of protection and confirmation of possessions to the prior and convent of St. Mary's, Carlisle, and specially the chapelry of the church of Carlisle, with all offerings, tithes, and parish rights belonging to the said church, except the offering at Whitsuntide, all the land formerly belonging to Walter the priest, which king Henry gave and confirmed by his charter, and other possessions named. Grant also of the right of electing the prior; and prohibition to the bishop to dispose of their possessions without their consent.
9 Kal. Dec.
Lyons.
(f. 13.)
Mandate to Master Berard de Nimpha, papal writer, and to Silvester, canon of St. John's de Duce, Anagni, living in England, to make provision of a benefice in England to Thebald, clerk, brother of P. senator of Rome.
Kal. Dec.
Lyons.
(f. 13d.)
Licence to the abbot of St. James of the Scots, Ratisbon, to commit to any of the priors subject to him the reception of novices in Ireland, the distance and dangers of the journey being too great to allow the novices to come to him.
8 Id. Dec.
Lyons.
(f. 14.)
Faculty to the same, for three years, to correct and reform what is necessary in the monasteries and priories of St. Benedict, in Ireland, subject to the monastery of St. James, Ratisbon, it being reported that some of the monks are vagabonds, and, going to remote places, escape from the discipline of their rule.
12 Kal. Nov.
Lyons.
(f. 16.)
Dispensation to Geoffrey de Aosfetes, perpetual vicar of Hunestanton, in the diocese of Norwich, to hold an additional benefice on resigning one of those which he has.
11 Kal. Jan.
Lyons.
(f. 16.)
Indult to the same in extension of the above dispensation, to hold a benefice in addition to a vicarage and other benefices which he has, the said vicarage being of the value of less than 20 marks, and he having spent much on it in building and repairing houses.
1249.
4 Non. Jan.
Lyons.
(f. 17.)
Mandate to the bishops of Glasgow and Dumblane to transfer the see of Argyll from the island in which it now is to some more secure and accesible place, the king of Scotland having offered to contribute to the expenses.
1248.
10 Kal. Jan.
Lyons.
(f. 17.)
Mandate to the same to cancel uncanonical elections made to the see of Argyll, which has been void for seven years, and, unless the canons elect a fit person within a given time, to appoint and consecrate a bishop, receiving from him his oath of fealty to the pope, and transmitting it under seal. [Theiner, 52.]
11 Kal. Jan.
Lyons.
(f. 18.)
Mandate to the bishop and archdeacon of Ely not to suffer Master William of Durham, rector of Werennia, papal chaplain, to be molested in regard of the papal confirmation concerning his rights over the town of Sonderlond, and the manors of Werennia and Sephor, granted to him by the late bishop of Durham, with assent of the chapter, and consent of the king, in regard of which he has asserted that the present bishop has injured him, the cause between them having been heard by the bishop of Albano, and J. cardinal of St. Laurence's in Lucina; the compromise made by the said chaplain and the bishop's proctor being confirmed by the pope.
Kal. Sept.
Lyons.
(f. 21d.)
Licence to Nicholas de Radenovere, clerk, of the diocese of Hereford, to hold one benefice with cure of souls, besides the two which he now has.
10 Kal. Feb.
Lyons.
(f. 22.)
Monition and mandate to the archbishops, bishops, prelates, earls, barons, and knights in England, to restore to the king the towns, castles, manors, liberties, and other rights that they have procured to be granted to them by the king contrary to his coronation oath, any other oath not to restore the said grants notwithstanding.
Ibid. Indult to the king, on his petition, to revoke grants made by him contrary to his coronation oath, as well as his second and illegal oath not to revoke them, and notwithstanding papal confirmation of the same.
18 Kal.Feb.
Lyons.
(f. 24d.)
Indult to Albert, curate (plebano) of Campilio, papal chaplain, to hold two additional benefices with cure of souls.
Ibid. Mandate to the archbishop of Canterbury to make provision to the said Albert, the queen's kinsman, of one or two benefices, enlarging thereby the terms of the former mandate in regard to the same.
Id. Feb.
Lyons.
(f. 29.)
Indult to Alan de Laterell, or Lacell, rector of Buneham, in the diocese of Lincoln, to hold an additional benefice with cure of souls.
2 Non. Feb.
Lyons.
(f. 29d.)
Mandate to Master Berard de Nimpha, papal writer, living in England, to make provision of a benefice with cure of souls in England, value 40 marks, to Albertin son of Simon called ‘Marchio,’ citizen of Genoa.
2 Non. Feb.
Lyons.
(f. 30.)
Confirmation to the abbot and convent of Evesham of the letters of Master Simon, archdeacon of the East Riding, and Richard, treasurer of Lichfield, by whom an agreement was made by order of O. late bishop of Porto, who, on appeal to the pope, heard the cause between the said abbot and convent and the bishop of Worcester, about the churches of Morton and Evesham, in the vale of Evesham, Hillindun, in the diocese of London, Weston and Beyne Warton, in the diocese of Worcester, and Stowe. The letters of the archdeacon and treasurer are dated Fladebure, 3 Id. December, 1248.
3 Kal. Mar.
Lyons.
(f. 30d.)
Indult to Master Robert de Anketil, canon of Dol, the king's clerk, to hold another benefice with cure of souls on resigning one of those which he has.
4 Non. Mar.
Lyons.
(f. 31d.)
Mandate to the archbishop of Canterbury, at the request of the count of Burgundy, lord of Salins, to make provision of a benefice in his province with cure of souls to Stephen, clerk, son of the lord of Chandiac.
10 Kal. Feb.
Lyons.
(f. 32.)
To the king. (An almost identical copy of the letter of the same date given above, f. 22.)
13 Kal. Mar.
Lyons.
(f. 34.)
Mandate to the archdeacon of Canterbury, papal chaplain, to decide the cause set forth by Peter of Savoy, for himself and his archdeaconry of Richmund, in regard to certain prelates rectors, vicars, and perpetual chaplains who, on the decease of their men take not only, as is customary in England, one of the best of their cattle, but also the next best, and sometimes a ninth, or a sixth, or, in a certain case, a third part of their personal property.
Id. Mar.
Lyons.
(f. 34.)
Indult, at the request of Peter of Savoy, to Simon de Vercers, clerk, of the diocese of Geneva, to hold one benefice with cure of souls besides the churches of Filing, in the above diocese, and of Witley in that of Winchester.
15 Kal. Apr.
Lyons.
(f. 34.)
Licence to Master Paul, canon of Ferentino, papal subdeacon, to hold one benefice with cure of souls, besides the rectory of Lingwode in the diocese or Norwich.
17 Kal. Apr.
Lyons.
(f. 34d.)
Mandate to the archbishop and archdeacon of Cashel to cause Master John de Frusinone, clerk, papal nuncio, to be received as canon of Dublin,if provision has not already been made to him by papal letters.
Ibid. Mandate to the archbishop and archdeacon of Dublin to publish the pope's revocation of the sentences of suspension and excommunication issued by the bishops of Achonry and Killala against Master John de Frusinone, under pretext of certain papal letters obtained by the bishop of Limerick.
Ibid. Indult to Master John de Frusinone that so long as he is in the pope's service no one shall issue against him any spiritual sentence.
Non. Mar.
Lyons.
(f. 35.)
Licence to Thomas de Luda to hold one benefice with cure of souls besides the rectory of Thya, in the diocese of Lincoln.
3 Kal. April.
Lyons.
(f. 35.)
Licence to Henry to hold one benefice with cure of souls besides the rectory of Aldeburg, in the diocese of Norwich.
4 Kal. April.
Lyons.
(f. 35d.)
Indult to Hugh called ‘Barre,’ to hold a benefice with cure of souls besides the rectory of Kivelinwurthe, in the diocese of Lincoln, value hardly more than 16 marks.
Id. April.
Lyons.
(f. 37d.)
Licence to Master Robert de Insula, archdeacon of Colchester, to hold a benefice with cure of souls besides those which he has without papal dispensation.
3 Non. April.
Lyons.
(f. 38.)
Mandate to the bishop of Ely, on the petition of Roger Bigot, earl of Norfolk, marshal of England, to cite him and Isabella, who passes as his wife, to appear within two months in person or by proctors before the pope, in order that the cause between them as to affinity, which has already lasted three years, may be proceeded with and determined, papal letters on either side having been already obtained, and there being no probability of a decision in England.
2 Non. April.
Lyons.
(f. 38.)
Faculty to the abbot of Evesham to confer on any fit person the church which the late Huguicio, papal subdeacon and chaplain, obtained from the monastery.
2 Non. April.
Lyons.
(f. 38.)
Faculty to the abbot of St. Mary's, York, to confer on any fit person the church of Croft, which the late Huguicio, papal subdeacon and chaplain, obtained from the monastery.
12 Kal. May.
Lyons.
(f. 38d.)
Mandate to the official of Canterbury, on petition of Robert, clerk, son of J. count of Burgundy, lord of Salins, to threaten those who molest him in respect to the benefices, value 300 marks, which the pope has ordered the archbishop to give him, and which he has not fully received; with citation to appear before the pope within a month, notwithstanding the indulgence to Englishmen that they shall not be cited across the English sea.
2 Kal. April.
Lyons.
(f. 39.)
Mandate to S. cardinal of St. Mary's in Trastevere, to receive from John Egiptius of Ferentino his resignation of a canonry of Southwell, and to give it to his brother Leonard, nephew of Peter, papal subdeacon and canon of York.
11 Kal. May.
Lyons.
(f. 39d.)
Licence to William de Wictowell, or Witowell, to hold one benefice or dignity with cure of souls, besides the rectory of Brantun, in the diocese of Norwich.
7 Kal. May.
Lyons.
(f. 40d.)
Faculty to John de Button, canon of Wells, brother of the bishop of Bath, to hold one benefice or dignity with cure of souls, besides the rectory of Assebyri, in the diocese of Salisbury.
Ibid. The like to Alexander de Banfield, canon of Wells, clerk of the bishop, who now holds two benefices with cure of souls.
Ibid. The like to Master Edward de Cnoll, canon of St. Davids, to hold one benefice besides those which he now has.
Ibid. The like to William de Greynvill, rector of Fermbrewe, in the diocese of Wells, who now holds two benefices.
7 Kal. May.
Lyons.
(f. 40d.)
Faculty to Ralph de Lacestria, to hold one benefice with cure of souls besides the rectory of Bradefel, in the diocese of Salisbury.
5 Kal. May.
Lyons.
(f. 41.)
To the bishop of Norwich, in answer to his question about Thomas de Ravenigham, whom the pope decides is his father's son and heir. It appears that Thomas de Ravenigham married Cassandra, and, having had by her a son and heir, Thomas, died. Hugh, a layman, Thomas's paternal uncle, endeavoured to shut him out of his inheritance, asserting that Thomas could not be Cassandra's husband, inasmuch as Thomas's brother William had espoused her, though the marriage was not consummated, and that therefore Thomas, the heir, could not be his legitimate son. But the said Thomas alleged that Cassandra was under seven years of age when espoused to William, and as he was born of a marriage contracted in the face of the church, and no doubt was thrown on his legitimacy during his father's life, he ought to be judged to be legitimate. The uncle alleged in reply that Cassandra, when espoused to William, must be presumed to have been of age, unless the contrary is proved; witnesses on either side being unable to determine this point. The pope says that to deprive Thomas of his inheritance not only ought it to be proved that Cassandra when William espoused her was of the age of seven years, or that the espousals were continued after that age by the will of the parties, but also that Thomas knew this when he married her, of which Hugh brought no proof.
7 Id. April.
Lyons.
(f. 41d.)
Mandate to the bishop of London and archdeacon of Berkshire, on the petition of William Longespee, who has taken the cross, to collect and assign to him, as soon as he crosses the sea, the sum of 2000 marks new sterling, which the pope ordered the bishops of Lincoln and Worcester to assign to him from the money collected in England for the Holy Land, notwithstanding any papal indult that such contributions are not to be paid until the crusade has reached the Holy Land.
7 Id. April.
Lyons.
(f. 42d.)
Letter to the bishops of Lincoln and Worcester, informing them of the above.
No date.
(f. 43.)
Mandate to the bishops of Lincoln and Coventry not to suffer the late bishop of Durham, who has resigned his see, to be molested on account of the provision made to him under papal orders by the archbishop of York, and the bishops of London and Bath, of the manors of Houeden, Stoketon, and Hesinton, belonging to his late bishopric.
10 Kal. May.
Lyons.
(f. 43d.)
Confirmation to Nicholas, late bishop of Durham, of the provision made to him of certain manors by the archbishop of York, and the bishops of London and Bath, who by papal order have received his resignation.
4 Kal. May.
Lyons.
(f. 44.)
Mandate to the abbot of Westminster and the archdeacon of Sudbury, in the diocese of Norwich, to make provision to Reginald de London, clerk, and king's proctor, of some prebend or other benefice in the province of Canterbury, the dioceses of Lincoln and Salisbury excepted.
3 Non. May.
Lyons.
(f. 44d.)
Indult to William de Lincolnia, clerk, of the diocese of Salisbury, to hold one benefice with cure of souls besides the two which he now has.
Id. May.
Lyons.
(f. 46.)
Mandate to the bishop of Norwich not to suffer the abbot and convent of Hulme to be molested touching the church of Scothowe, granted to them by the last bishop, of which Stephen de Rodham, knight, asserts that he is the patron, and having had sentence given in his favour by the king's justices, has presented William de Bath to the official of Norwich for institution. The lay sentence and subsequent acts are annulled.
16 Kal. Feb.
Lyons.
(f. 46d.)
Commission to the archbishop of York, the prior of Kirkeam, and the archdeacon of the Estridhine, in the diocese of York, to examine the question between the prior and chapter of Carlisle and the late bishop, about the division of the possessions of that church; the dean of Carlisle and his colleagues, as arbiters, having decided against the prior and chapter, who complain of the decision.
Non. Mar.
Lyons.
(f. 46d.)
Commission to the archbishop of York and the priors of Kirkeby and Newburg to take cognisance of the suit between the prior and chapter of Carlisle, and the bishop, heard before the late bishop of Norwich bishop elect, and by him committed to the abbot of Holcokran and his colleague, who gave sentence in favour of the bishop, concerning certain houses and churches, of which they had a right to take cognizance under pretext of which he now detains them.
17 Kal. June.
Lyons.
(f. 47.)
Faculty to the bishop of Aberdeen to promulgate statutes in his church regarding its clergy and canons and other parsons, with consent of the chapter.
Kal. June.
Lyons.
(f. 49.)
Mandate to the bishop of Bath and Wells to take the churches of Frome and Welewe out of the hands of the religious who now hold them, and cause them to be conferred on fit persons by those to whom the collation is found to belong, unless the said religious can prove that the churches were granted to them for lawful and reasonable cause.
13 Kal. June.
Lyons.
(f. 50.)
Mandate to Robert Passalaiwe, archdeacon of Lewes, to grant a dispensation to Stephen de Holewell, his nephew, papal subdeacon, to hold an additional benefice with cure of souls.
2 Kal. June.
Lyons.
(f. 50.)
Licence to Thomas Passalaiwe. clerk, nephew of Robert, archdeacon of Lewes, to hold one benefice with cure of souls besides those which he has, whose value does not exceed 70 marks.
Non. June.
Lyons.
(f. 50d.)
Mandate to Master Berard de Nimpha, papal writer, and John, canon of St. Andrew's, Anagni, living in England, to make provision of a prebendal or other benefice in England, the dioceses of Lincoln, Salisbury, and York excepted, to Angelo, scholar, son of Bartholomew Alexius, a Roman citizen.
7 Id. June.
Lyons.
(f. 52.)
Grant to the abbot and convent of Westminster, in order that they may solemnly celebrate the anniversaries of the king and queen who are to be buried in their church, of the church of Feringes, in the diocese of London, of their patronage, notwithstanding any papal indult to the contrary; a vicar's portion being reserved.
The official of the archbishop of Canterbury is appointed conservator.
8 Id. June.
Lyons.
(f. 52d.)
Indult, at the king's request, to his clerk John called ‘Francigena,’ to whom a dispensation has already been granted to hold an additional benefice in Scotland or Ireland, to hold another benefice with cure of souls in England.
13 Kal. June.
Lyons.
(f. 54d.)
Mandate to the official of Canterbury, at the request of A. lord of Fuciniac, to make provision of a prebendal or other benefice in England, the dioceses of York, Lincoln, and Salisbury excepted, to his nephew, Simon de Claromonte, canon of Rheims.
Non. June.
Lyons.
(f. 55.)
Mandate to Masters Peter de Piperno, papal subdeacon, and Berard de Nimpha, papal writer, to make provision to Peter, son of Giles, a Roman citizen, of a prebendal or other benefice in England, value 45 marks.
10 Kal. July
Lyons.
(f. 55d.)
Confirmation, addressed to the bishop of Lincoln, of the sentence pronounced by William, cardinal of St. Eustace's, in favour of the bishop against the abbot and convent of Marmoutier-lez-Tours, who complain of his having excommunicated the monks of the priory of Newport Pagnel, and claim that the priors instituted by the said abbot have the right of administering without contradiction of the bishop of the diocese. The sentence of cardinal William is dated Lyons, 4 Non. June, 1249.
10 Kal. July.
Lyons.
(f. 56.)
Mandate to the bishop of Salisbury to induct the proctor of Albert, clerk, son of Manfred, marquis of Rocceta, into possession of the church of St. Peter, Winterborn-Stoke, in the diocese of Salisbury, which was assigned to his proctor by Benatius, canon of Angera, in the diocese of Milan, John Sarraceni, dean of Wells, and Berard de Nimpha, under papal mandate, on the death of the rector, Nicholas de Benga of Anagni. The prior of Helengey, who is subject to the monastery of Jumièges, asserts that pope Gregory had given the church, which is of their patronage, on its voidance, to that monastery, turned out Albert's proctor, for which he was excommunicated by John Sarraceni and Berard de Nimpha. For this violence he deserves to lose the grant.
12 Kal. May.
Lyons.
(f. 57.)
Indult to the bishop and chapter of Glasgow that, in consideration of their church being burdened by having had to make provision to four Italians, there being only nine prebends and five dignities, they shall not be compelled to receive or make provision to any other until the death or resignation of one of the said four Italians.
16 Kal. July.
Lyons.
(f. 57d.)
Confirmation, with exemplification, of the collation made by papal mandate to Nicholas de Celano, son of Boetius, clerk of the papal camera, of a benefice in the gift of the prior and convent of Merton in the diocese of Winchester. The collation by Innocent, papal writer, is dated York, the Sunday before SS. Simon and Jude, 1249, and the papal mandate is dated Lyons, 8 Kal. February, anno 5.
5 Kal. May.
Lyons.
(f. 58d.)
Mandate to the bishop of Moray to make provision to Peter son of Ingebald, a Roman citizen, of one or more benefices in the dioceses of St. Andrews, Glasgow, or Dunkeld; the abbot of Dunfermelin having by papal mandate given Peter the church of Carentuli, which the bishop of Moray asserts is his own.
7 Id. June.
Lyons.
(f. 60.)
Mandate to the bishop of London and Master Berard de Nimpha, in consideration of the services of the late L. cardinal of St. Cross in Jerusalem, to make provision to his great nephew Matthew, scholar, son of Oddo Brancaleone, the younger, or his proctor, of some prebend or benefice in England, from those about to full vacant, the dioceses of York, Lincoln, and Salisbury excepted, with faculty to reserve the said benefice of the value of 50 marks, belonging to the collation of two bishops, or to the presentation of two abbots of England.
10 Kal. July.
Lyons.
(f. 60d.)
Confirmation, addressed to Master Walter, archdeacon of Norfolk, papal chaplain, of the sentence given in his favour by John, cardinal of St. Nicholas in Carcere, in regard to his right to visit and exercise archidiaconal jurisdiction in the churches of Wimundeham and Happesburg, the prior and convent of Wimundeham having refused to admit his right and the case having been heard by Master Bernard, dean of Patras. The cardinal's sentence is dated Lyons, in the house of St. Irenæus, 4 Id. June, 1249. It gives an account of the case from the time of Stephen, and some description of Wimundeham church, which is declared to be parochial.
Ibid. Mandate to the bishop and dean of St. Paul's, London, to enforce the above sentence.
2 Kal. Sept.
Lyons.
(f. 63.)
Grant to the master, prior, and convent of the order of Sempingham, in consideration of their having to maintain a hundred women under the rule of the order, who for lack of necessaries suffer in health, to hold to their uses the church of Prestwald, of their patronage, on its voidance, without the consent of the bishop or others.
Ibid.
(f. 63d.)
Mandate to the abbot of Rievaux, and prior of Kirkeham, to see that the above master, prior, and convent are not molested on account of the said indult.
6 Id. Oct.
Lyons.
(f. 63d.)
Grant to the master of the order of Sempingham, and the prior and convent of Bulington, of that order, in the diocese of Lincoln, of the church of Prestwald, of their patronage, value 26 marks; a vicar's portion being reserved.
Ibid. Mandate to the abbot of Rievaux, and the prior of Kirkeham, to see that the above are not molested on account of the said indult.
5 Id. Feb.
Lyons.
(f. 62d.)
Grant to the master of the order and the prior and convent of Sempingham, of the church of Wallcot, in the diocese of Lincoln, of their patronage, value 10 marks, to be held to their uses.
The abbot of Rievaux and the prior of Kirkeham are appointed conservators.

Footnotes

1 A copy of the original preserved in the National Library at Paris, made by Du Theil in 1779, at the request of Callistro and Caietano Mariui, Vaticau archivists. From a note inserted in the volume it appears that Giuseppe Garampi examined the original at Paris in January 1763. He describes it as written in a character like that of the other original registers of Innocent IV.